Sankhuwasabha District is in Kosi Zone of Nepal's Eastern Development Region. The district's area is 3,480 km² with a population of 159,203 in 2001 and 158,742 in 2011. The administrative center is Khandbari.

Bordering districts are Bhojpur, Terhathum and Dhankuta in Koshi Zone; Solukhumbu in Sagarmatha Zone; and Taplejung in Mechi Zone. Tingri County of Shigatse Prefecture in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China borders to the north.

Indigenous janajati ethnics are Yakkha, Lohorung, Kulung, Rai, Gurung, Limbu, and other hill castes (e.g. Chhetri, Bahun) and ethnic groups (e.g. Newar, Sherpa) live in this district. It is also known for cardamom farming.