The Chitwan District is one of 75 Districts of Nepal, and is located in the southwestern part of Narayani Zone with Bharatpur, the fifth largest city of Nepal, as its district headquarters. It covers an area of 2,218 km2 (856 sq mi), and in 2011 had a population of 579,984 (279,087 male and 300,897 female) people. Bharatpur is a commercial and service centre of central south Nepal and merger destination for higher education, health care and transportation of the region.

The district takes its name from the Chitwan Valley, one of Nepal's Inner Terai valleys between the Mahabharat and Siwalik ranges, both considered foothills of the Himalayas.

Bharatpur is located on the banks of the Narayani River, and is the main town with numerous shopping zones where people come from all over the district and neighbouring districts.

Now there are about 40 Village Development Committees, each of which has nine wards or villages and one sub-Metropolitan city, Bharatpur. The Ratnanagar, Khairhani and Chitrawan municipalities have more than nine wards or urban areas.

Chitwan is one of the few remaining undisturbed vestiges of the Terai region, which formerly extended over the foothills of Nepal.

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